Max Diamant in Emigration

The pictures from his daughter’s private archive show Max Diamant (1906-1992) with family and friends in Paris, Mexico and Germany.

Max and Doris Diamant © Private Archive Doris Diamant

Max Diamant in Mexico © Private Archive Doris Diamant

Max Diamant in Mexico © Private Archive Doris Diamant

Anna Diamant and Paul Frölich, Paris © Private Archive Doris Diamant

Max Diamant and Fritz Heine, undated © Private Archive Doris Diamant

Max Diamant wrote on the back: “Encounter with Fritz Heine in Bonn, at the FEST (Friedrich Ebert Foundatuion) on his ‘milestone’ birthday.”

Max Diamant © Private Archive Doris Diamant

The photos from Diamant’s daughter’s private archive show Max Diamant and his wife Anni Nord (later Diamant), his daughter Doris Diamant, the good family friend Paul Frölich, with whom the Diamants shared a house in Vanves near Paris, and Max Diamant together with the fellow escape helper Fritz Heine, whom he met during an event of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung in Germany after the war.

Max Diamant (1903-1992) was a workers’ union activist, journalist and escape helper.

Diamant is born into a Jewish family in the Polish city of Łódź and grows up trilingual: Yiddish, Russian and German. His parents are members of the Bund, the Jewish socialist workers’ party. In 1919 Max goes to school in Mannheim, where he lives with relatives. Five years later he emigrates with his family to the Soviet Union, but returns to Mannheim in 1927, where he meets his wife Anni Nord and writes for the social democratic newspaper “Volksstimme”. He dedicates his journalistic work to the fight against the rising National Socialists: He writes numerous articles on the strengthening of the National Socialist structures, including among students at Heidelberg University, where he himself was a student.

Diamant is co-founder of the Socialist Workers Party of Germany (SAPD). As a politically active social democrat and journalist, Max Diamant is already exposed to persecution shortly after the National Socialist takeover. He flees to Strasbourg in 1933 with Anni Nord and his 11-year-old brother Arnold, and in 1934 he continues on to Paris. After arriving in Paris, Max Diamant works in the Paris headquarters of the SAP and is an editor of the anti-fascist newspaper “Neue Front” and publisher of the socialist magazine “Marxistische Tribüne”. In France, Diamant and Anni Nord are granted the status of recognized refugees and later live with their friends Paul Frölich and Rosi Wolfstein in a house in Vanves.

With the beginning of World War II in September 1939, however, Diamant and Nord are also declared “enemy aliens” by France and are temporarily interned in camps. They manage to escape to Montauban in Brittany and from there to Marseille. In Marseille, the couple joins the escape aid network Centre Américain de Secours (CAS) around the American Varian Fry. In September 1941, the threat caused by the war intensifies and Diamant goes on to Lisbon, where he continues his work as an escape agent. From there he reaches Mexico in 1942. It is not until 1962 that he returns to Germany with his family. In Frankfurt he builds up a department called “Foreign Workers” within the trade union IG Metall with the goal of international networking of workers. Max Diamant dies in Frankfurt in 1992.

All photos from Doris Diamant’s private archive, published here with kind permission by Doris Diamant herself.